Use of insects in poultry feed as replacement soya bean meal and fish meal in development countries: a systematic review (2022)

Livestock Research for Rural Development 33 (10) 2021LRRD SearchLRRD Misssion Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Danung Nur Adli

Animal Nutrition Department, Animal Science Faculty, Brawijaya University 65145, East Java, Indonesia
danungnuradli1994@gmail.com

Abstract

Interest in the utilization of insect for animal feeding is increasing due to the potential for more efficient in replacement for Soya bean meal and fish meal. A database was designed based on published papers reporting the use of insect as poultry feed replacing Soya bean meal and fish meal. An algorithm literature published from 1990 to 2021 based on the Preferred Reporting Items for systematic review and meta-analyses (PRISMA) protocols. The trim and fill method was employed to detect the number of potential missing studies and to adjust the overall effect size. All publication bias procedures were performed using XLstat. Reported the used several strain such as Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) help to increase the poultry performance. In conclusion, the use of insects as a sustainable protein rich feed ingredient in diets is technically feasible, and opens new perspectives in animal feeding.

Key words: chitin, exoskeleton, protein, prospective


Introduction

Soya bean meal and fishmeal are major staple feed for poultry in Indonesia. A Soya bean meal and fish meal poses severe environmental issues every year through Indonesia. The Soya bean meal stock in Indonesia at the end of December 2020 was 852.424 tons and price always curvilinear increase until 2.5% every year. This worst condition are reported that the available stock is sufficient to meet the needs of feed production for the next 45 days. This stock will increase during the Soya bean meal harvest in early February. In line, the condition in the fish meal were similar with the Soya bean meal. Indonesia imports large quantities of fishmeal (800 tonnes/year) (Sjofjan and Adli, 2021). If the feed production poultry reached 5 million tonnes / year in Indonesia, the fish meal needed was at 0.25-0.75 million tonnes of fish meal every year (Adli, 2021).

This condition make an alternative to reduce used of thus two raw materials. One of potential were using insect meal. European Union (EU) promote a future promising feed by using insect meal as feed material. It was started July 2017 that EU creating a legislation and permits by using insect as processed anima protein (PAP) from insect. This legislative amendment reported must be transform into insect meal (dried insect ground to meal) that consist high energy and protein content. That content are meet requirement for replacing both Soya bean meal and fish meal. Insect as edible feed have been receiving recognition since it was promising for future. Moreover, insect meal are mostly can be mixed with other feed components, such as grains and soy. To form a mixture of a best composition that is convert into pellet form and more convenient feeding to animals.

Indonesia were Archipelago Island that is providing a huge area for forest. Thus forest were providing a huge biodiversity of insect as their home. Indonesia's 2021 forest monitoring show that the total forested land area of Indonesia is 94.1 million ha or 50.1 million total land. In addition, Indonesia's deforestation trend is relatively low, and tends to be stable. The total number net deforestation in 2018-2019, both inside and outside Indonesia's forest areas, was 462.4 thousand ha. This figure comes from the gross deforestation rate of 465.5 thousand ha with a reduction in the reforestation rate (from satellite image monitoring) of 3.1 thousand ha. But the article arguing about insect meal are not consistent. For example the using of sago larvae meal were optimum at the level 25% replacement Sjofjan and Adli (2021). Contrary finding from Mulyono et al (2021) the used insect meal decreased at the level 25% replacement, following with lower diet consumption. According thus condition this paper are the research synthesis on a precisely defined topic using systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, critically appraise and analyze relevant research about using insect as poultry feed as replacement Soya bean meal and fish meal using systematic review.


Material and methods

Literature search and database development

A raw database was constructed based on peer-reviewed and published research articles which reported used of insect meal as replacement Soya bean meal and fish meal in poultry feed. Articles were selected based on the Preferred Reporting Items for systematic review and meta-analyses (PRISMA). Algorithm search key for published article from 1990-2021,a search was conducted in Scopus, Web of Science, Pub Med, and Medline using the MESH terms “insect meal”, “broiler”, “performance”, “laying hens”, “replacement”, “Soya bean meal”, and “fish meal”. A search from Google Scholar was also undertaken to identify additional studies that may have been relevant to our objectives. The time search was conducted between 01/01/1990 to 31/12/2021.

Study selection criteria

The criteria applied for the selection of published article are following method from (Sjofjan et al 2021), include being consistently in English, available as open full-text, reported on the used any insect meal both broiler and laying hens of poultry of any breed and age which parameter observed were performance.

The studies included were recorded in a spreadsheet following. Criteria for an article to be in included in database were as follows: (1) articles was published in a peer-reviewed with range 1990-2021 (2) articles and studies reporting on insect use in other animal were not included (3) performed directly on poultry as the in-vivo trials, (4) the experiment provided information on the experimental period and specific ages, (5) the final database consisted of 14 in vivo studies with 90 treatments. (6) the experiment was a controlled-trial environment.

Data extraction

The published article were downloaded and extracted into Mendeley software (Elsevier) and the data were tabulated as first author, publication year, study, type of poultry used, duration of study, replacement Soya bean meal or fish meal, and results. Inline, data extraction was completed in accordance with the task analysis to obtain the exact values from graphical data, the relevant figure from the papers were subjected to an online tool, WebplotDigitizer 4.4 (https://automeris.io/WebPlotDigitizer/), following the (Park et al 2016) method.

Chitin measurement

Chitin was estimated by subtracting the amino acids recovered from the ADF fraction from the total ADF value. NFE calculated as Nitrogen-free extract (NFE) was calculated as 100 minus the sum of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash. Metabolizable energy using standard calculations ([gram of crude protein × 4.0] + [gram of crude fat × 9.0] + [gram of NFE × 4.0]) following (Elangovan et al 2021) method.

Effect size quantification

The effect size was determined using Hedges’ using a fixed-effect model. The model was chosen due the level of heterogeneity among publication after using Cochran’s Q and I-square.

Publication bias analysis

Publication bias was inspected using Begg’s and Egger’s tests, withp <0.10 set to determine the existence of publication bias. The trim and fill method was employed to detect the number of potential missing studies and to adjust the overall effect size. All publication bias procedures were performed using XLstat.

Use of insects in poultry feed as replacement soya bean meal and fish meal in development countries: a systematic review (1)
Figure 1. Diagram flow of article selection in the meta-analysis using SYRCLE method


Results and discussion


Table 1. The used of insect meal replacing Soya bean meal and fish meal in poultry performance

Study

Insect meal

Replacing

Levels (%)

Parameters

Strain

Onsongo et al (2018)

Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)

soya bean and fish meal

5-15

Curvilinear increase final body weight

Cobb-500

Schiavone et al (2016)

Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)

soya bean meal

50-100

Effective to replace soya bean meal and reduce mortality

Ross308

Al-Qazzaz et al (2020)

Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)

soya bean meal, and fish meal

10-50

Increase body weight and reduce FCR at 30-50% replacement

Cobb-500

Dordevic et al (2008)

Housefly (Musca domestica)

fish meal

50-100

Increasing weight gain

Hybro

Pieterse et al (2014)

Housefly (Musca domestica)

fish meal

0-10

Higher slaughtered weight than control

Ross

Atteh and Ologbenla (1993)

Housefly (Musca domestica)

fish meal

3-9

Increase body weight

Cobb

Elahi et al (2019)

Housefly (Musca domestica)

soya bean meal

0-8

Linear and quadratic ally reduce FCR

Ross 308

Mali et al (2020)

Termite meal (Macrotermes bellicosus termites)

fish meal

0-100

Increasing weight gain at the level 40%

Not reported

Sjofjan and Adli (2020)

Sago Larvae meal (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus)

fish meal

0-40

Curvilinear responses in feed intake, live weight gain and feed conversion

Not reported

Adli (2021)

Sago Larvae meal (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus)

fish meal

0-40

There were curvilinear increase in hen day production at 31-45 week and reduce feed egg ration

Lohmann

Marono et al (2017)

Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)

(Video) Insect Meal: An Alternative Protein Source in Swine Diets

soya bean meal

23-45

Higher percentage of egg

Lohmann

Maurer et al (2016)

Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)

soya bean meal

64-75

There were tendency in egg weight

Lohmann

Sumbule et al (2016)

Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)

fish meal

2.5-10

Increasing overall weight gain

Not reported

Secci et al (2018)

Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)

soya bean meal

100

Color of yolk are increase

Lohmann

Regulation and future potential using insect meal replacing soya bean and fish meal

According to EU legislation, there are seven species that are can be used as feed animal. The name as follows: 1) black soldier fly ( Hermetia illucens), 2) housefly (Musca domestica), 3) mealworm or yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), 4) lesser mealworm or litter beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus), 5) house cricket (Acheta domesticus), 6) tropical house cricket or banded cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus), and 7) Jamaican field cricket ( Gryllus assimilis).These species chosen regarding it criteria as follows: 1) did not cause any negative or side effect to human, or animal health; 2) the nutrient content can be alternative for staple food that source of protein e.g. fish meal and soya bean meal. In case of development countries like Indonesia, we founded article from Sjofjan and Adli (2021) and Adli (2021) that used Sago Larvae meal (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) as insect meal. Thus, insect are lower chitin substrate since the obstacle of using insect meal are chitin content. Furthermore, the advantage of used insect meal compared to fresh or unprocessed dried insects that it can be easily be mixed with other feed components, such as soya bean meal. Moreover, when transform into pellets the texture are more balance and convenient feeding to animals.

Use of insects in poultry feed as replacement soya bean meal and fish meal in development countries: a systematic review (2)
Figure 2. Effect of SLM on HDP, % (31-45 wk) (Adli, 2021)

Use of insects in poultry feed as replacement soya bean meal and fish meal in development countries: a systematic review (3)

Use of insects in poultry feed as replacement soya bean meal and fish meal in development countries: a systematic review (4)
Figure 3. Effect of FSL on feed intake (Sjofjan and Adli 2021)Figure 4. Effect of FSL on live weight gain(Sjofjan and Adli 2021)
The effect of insect meal replacing Soya bean meal and fish meal in poultry performance

The result showed from (table 1) that the used of insect meal consistent increase body weigh in broiler performance (Atteh and Ologbenla 1993; Onsongo et al 2018; Al-Qazzaz et al 2020). In addition, the insect meal also help curvilinear increasing body weight gain (Dordevic et al 2008; Mali et al 2020; Sjofjan and Adli 2021). The insect strain that used were Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens); Housefly(Musca domestica); Termite meal (Macrotermes bellicosus termites); Sago Larvae meal (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus). Moreover reported from Al-Qazzaz et al (2020) and Elahi et al (2019) using Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) and Housefly (Musca domestica) reduce feed conversion ratio (FCR) concomitantly with mortality of broiler. Furthermore, the used of insect meal partially or fully replacing can be increasing egg production, egg weight, and egg yolk colour (Marono et al 2017; Maurer et al 2016; Secci et al 2018).

The insect meal mentioned above such as black soldier fly or sago larvae meal have high levels of crude protein (table 2; table 3), which is the criteria of replacing staple food are similar nutrient content in this case (soya bean meal and fish meal). The insect meal also huge of amino acid content such as histidine, lysine, and tryptophan, which could be incorporated into the diet. Furthermore, the various data regarding body composition are analysed. Amino acids and fatty acids of several insect species are compared with the composition of soy and fishmeal as principal protein sources for animal feeding. As a protein source, insects, depending on the species, have an adequate profile of amino acids. Their amino acid composition is good and protein digestibility is high, and these can substitute 25–100% soymeal and fishmeal protein in the diets, depending on the source of insect meal and the animal species. With regard to the use of insect meals as livestock feed, this conference also identified some challenges and future areas of research.

Table 2. Insect meal analysis of the diets (%)

Nutrient content of insect meal, %

SEM

p

a

b

c

d

e

DM

88

90

97

92.5

98

0.2

0.22

CP

35.2

37.5

44

45

61.3

0.3

0.34

Fat

4.5

4.1

21.3

21.2

4.3

0.54

0.33

CF

3.5

5

29.3

5

4.6

0.33

0.11

Calcium (%)

3.1

2.48

2.48

0.45

7

0.21

0.21

Phosphorus (%)

0.5

0.5

0.52

0.1

0.01

0.33

(Video) Insect protein as animal feed: why we need it and how to scale it

0.11

Lysine (%)

1.3

1.3

1.3

0.23

1.3

0.11

0.52

Methionine (%)

0.4

0.41

0.41

0.7

0.45

0.34

0.71

Chitin (%)

0.11

-

-

-

0.21

0.21

Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF)

Chitin was estimated by subtracting the amino acids recovered from the ADF fraction from the total ADF value. NFE calculated as Nitrogen-free extract (NFE) was calculated as 100 minus the sum of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash. Metabolizable energy using standard calculations ([gram of crude protein × 4.0] + [gram of crude fat × 9.0] + [gram of NFE × 4.0]).

a: Sjofjan and Adli (2021); Sago Larvae meal (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus)

b: Adli (2021); Sago Larvae meal (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus)

c: Onsongo et al (2018); Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)

d: Curtinelli et al (2017); Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)

e:Schiavone et al (2016); Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)

Table 3. Insect meal analysis of the diets (%)

Nutrient content of insect meal, %

SEM

p

f

g

h

i

j

DM

96.4

91

98

62

70

0.3

0.34

CP

41.5

42.1

61.3

20

20.5

0.4

0.34

Fat

26.5

26

21.3

13.4

7

0.52

0.21

CF

3.5

7

4.61

5

4

0.23

0.21

Calcium (%)

0.8

0.75

0.7

0.02

0.04

0.23

0.31

Phosphorus (%)

(Video) EAAP Webinar: "The fast growth of the insects Industry"

0.5

1

0.91

0.29

0.3

0.13

0.21

Lysine (%)

-

6.6

4.05

1.02

1.10

0.12

0.22

Methionine (%)

-

2.1

1.30

0.24

0.30

0.14

0.31

Chitin (%)

-

0.21

0.81

2.1

2.1

0.44

0.17

Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF)

Chitin was estimated by subtracting the amino acids recovered from the ADF fraction from the total ADF value. NFE calculated as Nitrogen-free extract (NFE) was calculated as 100 minus the sum of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash. Metabolizable energy using standard calculations ([gram of crude protein × 4.0] + [gram of crude fat × 9.0] + [gram of NFE × 4.0]).

f: Maurer et al (2016); Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)

g: Makkar et al (2014); Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)

h: Marono et al (2017); Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)

i: Koutsos L et al (2019); Mealworm larva (Tenebrio molitor)

j: Koutsos L et al (2019); tropical house cricket or banded cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus)

Table 4. Amino acids content of insect meal (%)

Nutrient content of insect meal, %

SEM

p

a

b

c

d

e

Arginine (%)

0.97

1.25

2.11

17.73

-

0.21

0.11

Glycine + Serine (%)

2.00

2.06

-

-

-

0.32

0.12

Histidine (%)

0.59

0.48

1.35

10.7

-

0.52

0.12

Methionine+ cysctine (%)

0.40

0.47

-

-

0.86

0.31

0.21

Phenylalanine (%)

0.66

(Video) Replacing imported soya - a supply chain or a farmer issue?

0.65

1.64

16.01

-

0.22

0.31

Phenylalanine + Tyrosine (%)

2.03

1.65

-

-

-

0.31

0.41

Theronine (%)

0.77

0.74

1.63

15.88

0.64

0.12

0.22

Tryptophan (%)

0.15

0.13

-

-

0.16

0.33

0.41

Valine (%)

1.10

1.07

2.50

26.75

1.19

0.2

0.2

a: Koutsos L et al (2019); Mealworm larva (Tenebrio molitor)
b: Koutsos L et al (2019); Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)
c: Onsongo et al (2018); Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)
d: Elangovan et al (2021); Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)
e: Curtinelli et al (2017); Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)

Potential disadvantage of insects as feed; Chitin is an ant nutritional factor

With thus condition meet requirement insect meal could be partially replacing for fish meal and soya bean meal as staple feed for animal. Overall, the amino acid profile of insect meal is more comparable to fishmeal than plant-based feed. Therefore, insects would be a preferable alternative to soy for instance. In other hand, the crude protein might be low some amino acids such as methionine and lysine. Future, it still wide and huge to determine that amino acid content. However, using different insect species in combination could compensate for the lack of certain amino acids in some species. For instance, the amino acid profiles of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) and house fly (Musca domestica) larvae partly complement each other and together they match the profile of fishmeal much more closely than they do individually.

Fish diets in general contain relatively low levels of carbohydrates, the most common carbohydrate probably being chitin. However, chitin has been suggested to be an ant nutritional factor that impedes the absorption of nutrients in fish. Even though in insects the carbohydrate content is less than 20 % of their biomass, chitin forms the majority. This could present an issue when insects are utilized in fish feed. Even though investigations from Makkar et al (2014) on the effect of chitin are still inconclusive, they suggest that chitin negatively affects feed conversion and, therefore, is a limiting factor for the utilization of insects in fish feed or soya bean meal. Adli (2021) mentioned approximately fish meal used 20 g is consumed by hens to lay every single egg. But, national need for fish meal is around 150,000 tons/year and it can be fulfilled and available domestically only reaching 45,000/year (30%). The used of 30% must be divided into poultry and aquaculture sector. The majority of fish meal being used for this purpose originates from South America such as Peru and Chile. The imported fish meal also needed from China (Adli 2021).

Addition from Phiny et al (2003) it is important to promote the use of resources in order to replace imported soybean mirror from Lobby all of insects is one alternative the other approach is to use leaf meals of trees and shrubs such as Moringa oleifera, Muntingia foliages, Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr., Mimosa pigra, Mulberry leaves (Morus alba), and Tithonia diversifolia as protein source. Besides, there is no available information concerning the potential value of mulberry leaves as a protein source for animal production. While, Muntingia foliages (Muntingia calabura) and Mulberry leaves (Morus alba) contain crude protein of 20% in DM (Silivong et al 2012). Reported from Hong and Preston (2013) annual crude protein (CP) yield from Tithonia diversifolia can be very high at 6 tonnes/ha. In other hand, the leaves of S. sesban contained up to 27% CP in DM. Reported from Nhan et al (2011) Taro silage is of relatively high nutritive value, in terms of digestibility of the crude protein and only slightly inferior to a nutrient-rich diet of rice bran, broken rice, soybean meal and fish meal. Last, this kind of shrubs and leaf meals of trees are admired to use as future to develop a range of alternatives for soybean meal in poultry.

Use of insects in poultry feed as replacement soya bean meal and fish meal in development countries: a systematic review (5)Use of insects in poultry feed as replacement soya bean meal and fish meal in development countries: a systematic review (6)
Figure 5. Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)
(Chia et al 2018)
Figure 6. Live insect of Sago
larvae (Adli 2021)

Use of insects in poultry feed as replacement soya bean meal and fish meal in development countries: a systematic review (7)

Use of insects in poultry feed as replacement soya bean meal and fish meal in development countries: a systematic review (8)
Figure 7. Housefly (Musca domestica)
(Larraín P and Salas C 2008)
Figure 8. Termite meal (Macrotermes
bellicosus termites
) Egan et al 2021)

Use of insects in poultry feed as replacement soya bean meal and fish meal in development countries: a systematic review (9)

Use of insects in poultry feed as replacement soya bean meal and fish meal in development countries: a systematic review (10)
Figure 9. Yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor)
(Pali-Schöll et al 2019)
Figure 10. Banded cricket (Gryllodes
sigillatus) (Mali et al 2020)

Later, found that the insect meal relatively low calcium content if compared to fish meal. Soya bean meal contains low levels of calcium. However, the calcium content of insect can be affected by calcium content of the substrate they reared on. In addition, phosphorus content also need to be watch since it low in insect meal, as well as in soya bean meal compared to fish meal. Sjofjan et al (2021) an important factor for fish feed is the ratio of calcium to phosphorous and this would therefore possibly require adjustment to reach a ratio of 1.1 to 1.4 as found in fishmeal (Tran et al 2015). It will be exciting to follow the development of how and to what degree these insects will be used over the next few years.


Conclusions

  • In conclusion, the use of insects as a sustainable protein rich feed ingredient in diets is technically feasible, and opens new perspectives in animal feeding.
  • Insects appear to be a sustainable source of protein with an appealing quantity and quality and acceptable nutritive properties.


Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to Animal Feed and Nutrition Modelling (AFENUE) Research Group, IPB University, Indonesia, for technically supporting the present study.


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(Video) Feeding Pigs and Poultry on Regionally Produced and Organic Feed

Videos

1. Insect Fat - Food Industry and Science prospective
(AOCS American Oil Chemists' Society)
2. WEBINAR: Sustainable Insects farming. Case Study Italian Cricket Farm
(Friend of the Sea)
3. Replacing imported soya - a supply chain or a farmer issue? With the Soil Association
(FoodFutures)
4. Food Webinar Series - Valuable insects: an emerging source of protein in Europe
(Teagasc)
5. Nutrition - Jim Hermes
(ucdpiteskylab)
6. Event: "How to squeeze fat into a sustainable food future"
(TABLE)

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