Diagnosis of Poultry Disease - Canadian Poultry Consultants Ltd. (2022)

Live birds may be killed by cervical dislocation except when anemia or respiratory disease is suspected.

1. Examine the head, including the eyes, ears, nostrils, comb, wattles, mouth and beak.

Infected eyes and conjunctivitis are seen in CRD, sinusitis, Bordetella and Orthobacterium infection, infectious coryza and in ILT, IB and ND.

Keratoconjunctivitis with central corneal ulcers suggest ammonia burn.

Swollen sinuses are seen in infectious coryza (Parahaemophilus infection) in chickens, sinusitis (mycoplasma), cryptosporidia and Bordetella infection in turkeys and pheasants. They may also be seen as the result of other infections such as influenza.

Chronic fowl cholera causes swollen wattles and sinuses in adult chickens.

Fowl pox causes scabs on the comb, eyelid, and wattle, but must be differentiated from injury. Pox also occurs in turkey, pigeons, doves, canaries and other birds.

If the bird has had its beak trimmed, check for proper healing, overgrowth of the lower beak or over-trimming (cut too short).

Injury on the head, neck or breast or back may indicate predators. Dermatitis and scabby or crusty lesions around the mouth and eyes suggest vitamin B deficiency.

2. Cut across the upper beak and back into the sinuses; then through the mandible and down the esophagus into the crop.

White plaques in the mouth, esophagus, or crop may be caused by capillaria worms, yeast infection (candidiasis, moniliasis), or possibly trichomoniasis or vitamin A deficiency, but most frequently by fowl pox (wet form). White plaques beside the tongue in the mouth are common in hens and turkey breeders and may be caused by mycotoxin or low humidity. Vomitoxin may produce similar lesions in young chickens and turkeys.

If the crop is enlarged and full, it may be an impacted or a sour crop (pendulous crop). The problem may be caused by excess water intake, defects in the crop itself, partial blockage of the proventriculus or gizzard or Marek’s disease. Necrosis of the crop in wild birds is caused by Salmonella infection.

3. Examine the soft palate and larynx and cut down the trachea.

Wet fowl pox lesions are seen on the roof of the mouth, pharynx and larynx.

Granulation, congestion and mucus in the trachea are seen in CRD, IB, coryza, ILT, Orthobacterium, Bordetella, and E. coli infection, or with dust and ammonia fumes.

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Hemorrhage and blood clots may occur in ILT and in ND or coryza and may cause severe gasping.

Gapes (gape worms) in pheasants, quail, and other birds is caused by Syngamus infection which also causes gasping. Cyanthastoma cause similar infection in water fowl and tracheal flukes may be found in waterfowl. Tracheal and air sac mites occur in cage birds.

4. Check the abdomen for lice and mites, and the vent for injury and prolapse of the oviduct.

Cut down between the abdomen and the legs and dislocate the hip joints. Peel the skin off the abdomen and breast. Tightly adhering skin and dark tissues indicate dehydration. Remove the breast carefully by cutting through the abdominal muscles, ribs and coracoids.

At this point, examine the thoracic and abdominal organs, paying particular attention to the air sacs, lungs, and liver. Carefully raise the gizzard and intestines and examine the abdominal air sacs, peritoneum, spleen and the ovary in laying birds.

The air sacs are cloudy in respiratory disease such as E. coli infection, Mycoplasma, Aspergillus, IB or early CRD in chickens. If there is also fibrin on the liver and in the pericardial sac, suspect E. coli or Salmonella infection. These lesions in turkeys and other birds might also be due to Chlamydia, or in ducks Anatipestifer infection.

Pneumonia in turkeys is caused by fowl cholera (Pasteurella multocida infection), and the lungs are quite solid. Aspergillosis, ND, AI, E. coli and Ornithobacterium infection can also cause pneumonia.

Peritonitis in layers is usually “egg peritonitis” caused by E. coli infection from the oviduct, although acute fowl cholera also causes peritonitis.

White crystals on the heart, liver and other tissues and organs are uric acid crystals (visceral gout) and are caused by hyperuricemia from urate nephrosis secondary to water deprivation, urolithiasis or other kidney disease.

Large blood clots in the abdomen or hemorrhage and hematoma on the liver are the result of trauma or fatty liver hemorrhage syndrome in chickens, or ruptured aorta in turkeys.

Tumors in or on the organs may be Marek’s disease, lymphoid leukosis, or other varieties of tumors. Multiple small tumors on the organs and peritoneum in adult hens are metastasis from a carcinoma of the oviduct. This may result in ascites.

Ascites may also result from heart or liver disease or from ingestion of some toxic material. Right ventricular failure occurs most frequently in meat-type chickens after 4 weeks. It occurs secondary to pulmonary hypertension causing right ventricular hypertrophy and valvular insufficiency.

Focal white lesions on the organs may be tumors or they may be tuberculosis or coli-granuloma or, if just on the liver, blackhead. Turkeys, pheasants, and peacocks are all quite susceptible to blackhead; chickens are less susceptible. There are prominent cecal cores in blackhead (Histomoniasis) and occasionally in salmonella infection or coccidiosis.

In chicks, turkeys and waterfowl, examine the lungs and air sac for yellow-white foci or plaques caused by brooder pneumonia (Aspergillosis). Gasping in young birds is a sign of tracheal or bronchial epithelial injury, or obstruction and can be caused by irritating fumes or by infection (often IB plus E. coli or Aspergillosis).

In young chicks, look for an infected navel and for yolk-sac infection or peritonitis (mushy chick, omphalitis) in which the abdomen is swollen, wet, and discoloured, and the yolk-sac is infected (due to E. coli, Salmonella, Staph., Proteus, etc.).

Young birds also die because they don’t start to eat (starve-outs) or drink (dehydration). Deaths occur mainly at 3, 4, and 5 days. This may be a management problem (chilling, feed and water not available, etc.) or the chicks/poults may be weak or defective when hatched.

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Broiler chickens that die suddenly from sudden death syndrome (dead in good condition) or from heat stroke, or suffocation (piling-up) have congested, edematous lungs, a full digestive tract and congested mottled breast muscle.

5. Examine the circulatory and immune systems, the heart, pericardial sac, blood, spleen, bursa, thymus, and lymphoid tissue of the thigh and intestine.

Birds that die from anemia are pale and the blood is watery. With CAV the thymus is small and bone marrow may be pale. Birds that bleed to death (pick-outs, ruptured fatty liver, acute cecal coccidiosis, ruptured aorta, hemorrhagic enteritis in turkeys, etc.) are also pale.

Sulfa poisoning produces anemia and widespread hemorrhage in the tissues. Chicken anemia virus (CAV) produces similar lesions and is the agent responsible for infectious anemia associated with IBH. Lead poisoning may also cause anemia.

To identify anemia from parasites in blood cells (Plasmodium or leukocytozoon in ducks, turkeys and chickens), blood from a live, sick bird must be examined.

IBD (Gumboro disease) is caused by a virus that damages the bursa causing illness in 2-4 week old chickens or in younger chickens destroys part of the immune system, making birds more susceptible to other infections.

Swelling, congestion and hemorrhage with or without focal necrosis in the spleen, liver and lymphoid tissue suggest septicemia (fowl cholera, fowl typhoid, streptococcosis, or erysipelas) or viremia (ND and duck virus enteritis also affect the lymphoid tissue in the intestine).

Marek’s disease and lymphoid leukosis produce tumors in lymphoid tissue and organs except for the bursa which is mainly affected by lymphoid leukosis (occasional Marek’s lesions may occur in the stroma of the bursa).

Skin leukosis is Marek’s disease virus causing viral dermatitis in the feather follicles. At processing this can be confused with scabby hip or other causes of dermatitis. Marek’s disease can also cause lymphoid neoplasia in the skin.

6. Cut through the proventriculus and remove the digestive tract and liver. Open the proventriculus, gizzard, and small and large intestines to the cloaca. Check the cloaca carefully for evidence of picking injury.

If hens are not properly beak-trimmed or are too fat, mortality from “pick-out” is common. The whole intestine may be picked out through the cloaca. Prolapse of the vagina (and cloaca) (blow-out) may occur from excess fat or straining, secondary to injury or inflammation. Injury is common in flocks that produce large eggs before they become mature.

Examine the digestive tract for lesions and the various kinds of enteritis (hemorrhagic, necrotic, ulcerative, etc.), parasites (tetrameres, roundworms, capillary worms, tapeworms, cecal worms, and coccidia), and gastrointestinal accidents. A large proventriculus in broilers is from lack of fibre in the diet resulting in poor development of the gizzard. A thickened proventriculus sometimes with ulcers or hemorrhage may be Marek’s disease or infectious proventriculitis.

Green staining of the digestive tract is just bile and indicates that the bird is not eating. The liver and spleen may be small (if the bird is thin) and the gallbladder full.

Salmonella pullorum (pullorum disease, bacillary white diarrhea) causes enteritis, diarrhea and death in chicks. It has been eradicated in many countries.

Check the ceca, intestine and liver for lesions of blackhead, TB, coccidiosis or tumor, the liver for other varieties of bacterial, viral or protozoal hepatitis, cholangiohepatitis etc., and the pancreas for tumors.

A large liver may be lymphoid leukosis or Marek’s disease, or it may be caused by bacterial hepatitis (E. coli, campylobacter) or fowl typhoid (Salmonella gallinarum).

Hepatitis with necrosis and hemorrhage that looks like bacterial (vibrionic) hepatitis may be immune damage to veins (vasculitis) from amyloid.

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A large, yellow liver may be normal fat storage in a laying bird (estrogen stimulation) but layers die from fatty liver hemorrhage syndrome. This occurs when the liver ruptures because it has become fragile due to excess fat and free radical damage from fat.

A yellow or hemorrhagic liver particularly with focal necrosis may be viral hepatitis (IBH) which is seen in broilers, pigeons, raptors, owls and psittacine (but IBH does not cause infectious anemia).

7. Examine the testes or ovary and open the oviduct. Shrinking ova indicate illness of 2-7 days’ duration or one from which the bird may be recovering. Small, sac-like ova indicate that the bird has been out of lay for a week or more and may be in a molt.

Semi-solid (cooked) ova indicate bacterial infection (such as salmonella).

An impacted oviduct may be secondary to vent-picking, egg-material left in the oviduct, or the bird may be egg-bound. Infection (Mycoplasma, IB, E. coli) can cause salpingitis as well.

A large or small fluid-filled cyst in the right abdomen beside the cloaca is the cystic remnant of the right oviduct (may be normal, but increased by IBV).

A drop in production may be related to clinical or subclinical disease (EDS, IB, MG, AE, AI, ND, etc.) or management faults (lack of light, temperature change, lack of water) or nutritional problems etc.

Deformed shells suggest management faults, superovulation, EDS, IB and soft shells (higher than 1-2%) calcium or vitamin D3 deficiency.

A normal-appearing dead bird with an egg in the shell gland, or just laid has likely died from acute hypocalcemia. These birds often have fragile bones (particulary the femur), lack of medullary bone and rib infolding (osteoporosis, osteopenia, osteomalacia).

Hard (fibrotic) or swollen testes indicate bacterial infection (salmonella).

8. Examine the kidneys and ureters.

Swollen, pale or white spotted kidneys indicate hyperuricemia from urate nephrosis and may be due to lack of water or other kidney disease. Swollen. pale kidneys are also seen in IBH, IBD and fatty liver and kidney disease. Ureters plugged with hard stony material (urolithiasis) indicates a previous low phosphorus diet.

Swollen kidneys and nephritis may be due to IBV (nephrotrophic strain) or E. coli infection and usually causes death from dehydration. Newcastle’s disease causes lympholytic foci in the kidney in pigeons.

9. Examine the skin, integument, muscles, bones and joints.

Emaciation, along with small organs, suggests malnutrition, stunting syndrome, beak injury (poor trimming), peck order (psychological) problems, chronic disease (coccidiosis), bumblefoot or other lameness, or chronic poisoning (lead, insecticide, etc.).

Muscular degeneration due to vitamin E-selenium deficiency can cause lameness, particularly in ducks. Ionophore toxicity causes muscle damage and paralysis in turkeys. Granulomas in the breast muscle are usually a vaccine reaction.

Sarcosporidial cysts produce small, white lesions in the muscle of water fowl.

Examine bones and joints for abnormality and deformity. Angular bone (valgus-varus) deformity of the intertarsal joint is caused by lateral or medial bending of the tibio-tarsal and metatarsal bones and is a common problem in meat-type poultry. It has a variety of possible causes (nutritional, rapid growth, management, etc.). Tibial dyschondroplasia causes backward bending or fracture of the top of the tibia. Slowing growth in young birds will help prevent leg deformity.

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Other types of hock and stifle lameness and ruptured tendons are frequent in heavy roaster and turkeys and may be mainly due to injury as the result of heavy weight and fast growth, but some respond to added selenium or B vitamins.

Check for poor bone-breaking strength (osteoporosis) and, in young birds for rubbery bones, soft beaks, and beaded ribs which indicate calcium or Vit. D3 deficiency (rickets). Cage layer fatigue because of fragile bones may be due to phosphorus deficiency. Calcium and Vit. D3 deficiency also cause fragile bones (osteoporosis) in adults, but the most common cause is continuous high production.

Infectious stunting syndrome (malabsorption syndrome, fragile bones, osteoporosis) in young broilers is caused by intestinal damage from viral infection in young chicks. The chickens are small, poorly feathered and there is poorly digested food in the lower intestine. Osteomyelitis also causes fragile bones.

Curly-toe paralysis in young birds may be riboflavin deficiency, but in older birds and turkeys may be genetic or due to lack of roosts.

Cracked feet and foot dermatitis may be pantothenic acid or biotin deficiency, but scaly leg is caused by mites.

Footpad dermatitis and hock lesion are often caused by poor litter conditions.

Toe injury in young birds may be cannibalism or mechanical injury.

Arthritis in the feet or hocks or other joints suggests infectious synovitis (Mycoplasma synoviae) or E. coli or Staph. infection often with osteomyelitis.

Infection in the wing joints in pigeons is usually due to salmonella.

In broilers, roaster and broiler breeders viral arthritis (reovirus infection) may cause lameness or ruptured tendons. Ruptured tendons are usually caused by rapid growth and large body size (heavy weight) and there is usually thickening of the tendon above the hock.

If growing birds are lame, and there is no evidence of infection or rickets, cut into the proximal tibia and look for necrosis caused by osteomyelitis or dyschondroplasia and split the spine at T4 to look for spondylolisthesis (kinky-back), a plug of cartilage impinging on the cord or consider Marek’s disease.

Necrotic dermatitis is caused either by staph. or clostridium infection and is associated with immunosuppression (usually by CAV or IBD). Scabby-hip is usually from overcrowding, poor litter conditions, poor feathering or scratches. Dermatitis or granulation in the neck may be a vaccine reaction, or contaminated vaccine.

10. Disturbances of the nervous system may cause incoordination, staggering, paralysis, walking backwards (with wings flapping for balance), tremors, stargazing, and other odd behavior.

In case of lameness, paralysis, or incoordination, examine the sciatic nerves, spinal cord, and brain. Histologic examination will be required for diagnosis.

ND may produce CNS disturbances in pigeons as well as nervous, respiratory, intestinal and reproductive lesions in chickens, pheasants, turkeys, and wild and cage birds of all ages.

Range paralysis is a form of Marek’s disease affecting the peripheral and central nervous system causing lameness, incoordination and paralysis. Marek’s can also cause botulism-like paralysis and transient paralysis.

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Vitamin E deficiency (avian encephalomalacia) causes soft, dark areas of hemorrhage in the cerebellum which may be visible grossly. B vitamin deficiency (thiamine and other) may also cause nervous signs.

Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) (epidemic tremor) affects birds up to 3-4 weeks old from non-immune parents.

Arsenilic acid and other feed additives and toxins (botulism, lead) may cause CNS disturbances, while others like the ionophores and coffee weed seeds (Cassia) cause nerve or muscle damage. Bacterial infection (pasteurella, pseudomonas, salmonella, staph. etc.) and fungi (aspergillus, etc.) also cause meningoencephalitis, occasionally in outbreak proportions.


How is poultry disease diagnosed? ›

Common signs of disease in poultry
  1. feather loss (unless birds are going through a natural moult)
  2. general inactivity.
  3. discharges.
  4. abnormal droppings.
  5. dull and/or closed eyes.
  6. ruffled feathers.
  7. drooped wings.
  8. sitting on haunches or lying down.
3 Nov 2020

What are the 7 common types of disease chicken have? ›

Diseases of Poultry
  • Colibacillosis (Coliform infections) Problems attributed to coliform infections are often caused by strains of the Escherichia coli organism. ...
  • Mycoplasmosis (CRD, Air sac, Sinusitis) ...
  • Fowl Cholera. ...
  • Necrotic Enteritis. ...
  • Ulcerative Enteritis (Quail disease) ...
  • Pullorum Disease. ...
  • Fowl Typhoid. ...
  • Botulism.

What are the four common disease in poultry? ›

avian influenza (highly pathogenic) duck virus enteritis (duck plague) duck virus hepatitis. infectious bursal disease (hypervirulent and exotic antigenic variant forms)

What are 3 diseases that can affect chickens? ›

Common diseases known to affect poultry as listed by nafis.go.ke in Kenya include:
  • New Castle Disease. It is caused by a highly contagious virus that infects the respiratory and nervous system. ...
  • Gumboro/infectious bursal disease. ...
  • Fowl Typhoid. ...
  • Fowl Cholera. ...
  • Pullorum Disease. ...
  • Fowl Pox. ...
  • Coccidiosis.
16 Sept 2019

What are general disease control measures in poultry? ›

Reduce exposure to disease organisms by proper sanitation and stress management. Increase bird resistance to disease by using recommended immunization procedures. Treat disease outbreaks with specific medications that are effective against the disease being treated.

What disease kills the most chickens? ›

Globally, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) is often considered the most significant poultry disease because of the number of domestic poultry the virus kills annually. Unfortunately right now in 2022 we are dealing with a major HPAI outbreak in North America.

Which one is the most fatal disease of poultry? ›

Newcastle Disease

It is a deadly chicken disease globally. It causes respiratory and nervous disorders in chickens and other birds. Chickens are readily infected by aerosols and by ingesting contaminated water or food.

What is the latest chicken disease? ›

VND was first detected in May of 2018 in Los Angeles County. By December 2018 the virus had spread extensively in backyard poultry in the LA Basin and also infected commercial flocks. After prolonged disease control efforts, the last confirmed positive case was detected in February, 2020.

What are the classification of poultry disease? ›

1 Dullness- weakness, emaciation 2 Paralysis-due to toxins produced from worms 3 Enteritis-diarrhea with blood 4 Anemia-due to sucking of blood by worms. 5 Drop in egg production.

What is the best medicine for poultry? ›

Coccidiostats that can be used in conventional poultry production include the following:
  • Amprolium (e.g., Amprol, Corid)
  • Bambermycin (e.g., Flavomycin, GAINPRO)
  • Decoquinate (e.g., Deccox)Diclazuril (e.g., Clinacox)
  • Halofuginone hydrobromide (e.g., Stenorol)
  • Lasalocid (e.g., Avatec)

What is the most common bacteria associated with poultry? ›

Chicken can be a nutritious choice, but raw chicken is often contaminated with Campylobacter bacteria and sometimes with Salmonella and Clostridium perfringens bacteria.

What are the viral diseases of poultry? ›

Viral Diseases
  • Avian Influenza.
  • Avian Encephalomyelitis.
  • Avian Leukosis/Sarcoma.
  • Chicken Infectious Anaemia.
  • Fowl Pox.
  • Hemorrhagic Enteritis.
  • Inclusion Body Hepatitis.
  • Infectious Bronchitis.

Which is the most common disease attacks among poultry and livestock? ›

coli, and mycoplasma are the most common poultry diseases around the world.

What are the common diseases found in birds? ›

Common Pet Bird Diseases and Solutions
  • Parrot Wasting Syndrome. ...
  • Parrot Fever. ...
  • Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease. ...
  • Polyomavirus. ...
  • Candidiasis. ...
  • Giardiosis. ...
  • Goiters. ...
  • Pacheco's Disease.

What are the 4 steps of disease control? ›

These preventive stages are primordial prevention, primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention. Combined, these strategies not only aim to prevent the onset of disease through risk reduction, but also downstream complications of a manifested disease.

What are the 7 factors used to determine poultry grades? ›

For carcasses and parts, the factors include conformation, fleshing, fat covering, defeathering, exposed flesh, discol- orations, disjointed or broken bones, missing parts from whole carcasses, and freezing defects, if applicable.

What are the five ways to control diseases? ›

How You Can Prevent Chronic Diseases
  • Eat Healthy. Eating healthy helps prevent, delay, and manage heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases. ...
  • Get Regular Physical Activity. ...
  • Avoid Drinking Too Much Alcohol. ...
  • Get Screened. ...
  • Get Enough Sleep.

What disease kills chickens fast? ›

Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) is a contagious and fatal viral disease that affects all bird species. It is one of the most infectious poultry diseases in the world. END is so deadly that many birds die without showing any signs of disease.

How do you treat chicken disease? ›

Basic Sick Chicken Treatment
  1. Isolate the Sick Bird. The first thing you'll want to do in your sick chicken treatment process is isolate the bird. ...
  2. Keep Your Sick Chick Hydrated. ...
  3. Encourage Healthy Eating. ...
  4. Focus on Rest and Healing. ...
  5. Plan for the Best and the Worst.

Which is the most common disease for backyard poultry? ›

As in commercial poultry production, control of coccidia is one of the more common and costly problems in raising backyard poultry. Coccidia are found primarily in the intestinal tract of most poultry but are also found in the kidney in geese.

What medicine is good for sick chickens? ›

A poultry veterinarian shared with me that they prescribe ProZyme to their sick patients. ProZyme helps sick chickens produce the enzymes needed to digest feed properly and makes feed ingredients more bio-available when they most need them. Add 1/4 teaspoon per 1 cup of feed.

How do you treat a bacterial infection in chickens? ›

For the majority of chicken bacterial diseases, treatment involves antibiotics. They can be given in the water or with pills (there are other ways that are impractical for flocks of less than 500). How they are given depends on the specific disease and which method is most practical.

Can amoxicillin treat poultry? ›

Oral bioavailability of amoxicillin was found to be 63.00 ± 4.58%. The results indicate that a dosage of 10 mg/kg administered orally at 24 h intervals should be effective in treating a variety of systemic infections in poultry.

Is there a bird flu in 2022? ›

CDC has been monitoring for illness among people exposed to bird flu virus-infected birds since these outbreaks were first detected in U.S. wild birds and poultry in late 2021. To date, bird flu viruses have been found in U.S. commercial and backyard poultry in 44 states and in wild birds in 46 states since early 2022.

Where has avian flu been found 2022? ›

Avian Influenza Alert. The Eurasian strain H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has been detected in a wild bird species in Humboldt County, California.

What are the 5 classifications of disease? ›

The most widely used classifications of disease are (1) topographic, by bodily region or system, (2) anatomic, by organ or tissue, (3) physiological, by function or effect, (4) pathological, by the nature of the disease process, (5) etiologic (causal), (6) juristic, by speed of advent of death, (7) epidemiological, and ...

What are the 6 classifications of poultry? ›

Standard breeds of chickens are broken down into six (6) different classes. They are known as American, Asiatic, Continental, English, Mediterranean, and All Other Standard Breeds.

What are the 3 most common types of poultry? ›

For simplicity, you can place them into three general categories: Laying, meat-producing and dual-purpose breeds.

Which steroids are used in poultry? ›

Remember: steroids and hormones aren't allowed, so all chickens are steroid- and hormone-free. Although chickens aren't fed artificial growth enhancers, they are selectively bred to get huge—which, too often, entails a great deal of suffering.

What are the 4 main bacteria pathogens that contaminate meat and poultry products? ›

The most important foodborne bacterial pathogens associated with meat are Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Aeromonas hydrophila [11].

Which bacteria is most contaminated chicken and eggs? ›

Salmonella and Eggs
  • Chickens and other live poultry can carry Salmonella bacteria.
  • These germs can spread from the birds to their eggs. If you eat raw or undercooked eggs, you can get sick.
  • Always handle and cook eggs properly to prevent illness.
17 Mar 2022

What is the first line of defense against diseases of a poultry flock? ›

Good farming practices are the first line of defence to help prevent disease affecting your flock. It is important to keep your flock in a clean environment with minimal stress. Always provide sufficient feed for the age and production status of the birds and plenty of cool, clean water.

How do you know if a chicken has a disease? ›

If your flock becomes infected, you'll notice that egg production will drop, the consumption of food and water will decline, there may be a discharge from the birds' eyes and nostrils, and you may notice labored breathing from your birds.

How do I know if my chicken is diseased? ›

Common indications of a sick chicken include: hiding, inactivity, pale comb or wattles, unusual droppings, unusual posture, lethargy, lack of appetite and reduced egg production- all indications that closer observation is needed.

How is salmonella diagnosed in poultry? ›

It is mainly in very young chickens aged up to two weeks that salmonella can cause disease and death. The symptoms may vary and include weakness, loss of appetite and poor growth. The animals are crowded close to heat sources and sit with drooping wings and their eyes closed. Watery diarrhoea may also occur.

What is the most common disease in chickens? ›

Globally, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) is often considered the most significant poultry disease because of the number of domestic poultry the virus kills annually. Unfortunately right now in 2022 we are dealing with a major HPAI outbreak in North America.

How do I know if my chicken has a bacterial infection? ›

Symptoms range from difficulty breathing, fever, reduced appetite, reduced egg production, rapid weight loss and sudden death to swollen face, wattles, and swollen joints. Antibiotic treatment can be given for confirmed diagnoses, although your birds will likely remain carriers.

How do you know if your chicken has coccidiosis? ›

Coccidiosis in chickens - The Signs
  • Bloody or watery diarrhea.
  • Lethargy.
  • Lack of appetite.
  • Pale combs and wattles.
  • Droopy posture and wings.
  • Ruffled or puffed up feathers.
  • Droopy, dull or glazed eyes.
  • Poor growth in chicks.
21 Jan 2019

What happens to diseased chickens? ›

Finding a dead hen is always concerning and sad, but when burying her body, you can be thankful for her providing of eggs and being part of your life. Nutrients in her body will be recycled in the soil and help trees and grasses grow. It is her final gift.

What is the diagnosis for salmonella? ›

Diagnosing Salmonella infection requires testing a specimen (sample), such as stool (poop) or blood. Testing can help guide treatment decisions. Infection is diagnosed when a laboratory test detects Salmonella bacteria in stool, body tissue, or fluids.

What is the diagnosis and treatment of salmonella? ›

Salmonella infection is diagnosed when a laboratory test detects Salmonella bacteria in a person's poop (stool), body tissue, or fluids. Most people recover without specific treatment. Antibiotics are typically used only to treat people with severe illness. Patients should drink extra fluids as long as diarrhea lasts.

How do you test for E coli or salmonella? ›

To diagnose illness caused by E. coli infection, your doctor sends a sample of your stool to a laboratory to test for the presence of E. coli bacteria. The bacteria may be cultured to confirm the diagnosis and identify specific toxins, such as those produced by E.

What are three common identification methods used in poultry? ›

What type of poultry identification is best for you?
  • Wing Bands. ...
  • Leg Bands. ...
  • ***Try a combination of leg bands and wing bands for guaranteed identification***
  • Peepers / Blinders. ...
  • Toe Punches. ...
  • Other Poultry Identification Options:
1 Jun 2017

What is PCR in poultry? ›

The BioChek Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test kits will detect the presence of specific DNA/RNA. Every PCR test kit uses the same thermocycler protocol enabling the technician to perform PCR reactions for different targets at the same time on 1 thermocycler.


1. Notifiable Avian Disease
(British Free Range Egg Producers Association)
2. Antibiotic Use in the Poultry Industry: Treating Flocks Raised without Antibiotics
3. Disease Challenges in Poultry Production : Role of Vaccines, Vaccination and Pathogen
4. Update on Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) and Small Flock Poultry
(Canadian Animal Health Surveillance System)
5. Veterinarians - Profile Description for Canada Work permit, LMIA and PR | NOC CODE 3114
(A2z Immigration Updates)
6. If It Were Not Filmed No One Would Believe It
(#Mind Warehouse)

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